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Natural resources in India


                                               

                       Natural resources in India

     
                                 

                                                                          The total cultivable area in India is 1,269,219 km² (56.78% of total land area), which is decreasing due to constant pressure from an ever-growing population and increased urbanization. India has a total water surface area of 314,40 km² and receives an average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm. Irrigation accounts for 92% of the water utilisation, and comprised 380 km² in 1974, and is expected to rise to 1,050 km² by 2025, with the balance accounted for by industrial and domestic consumers. India's inland water resources comprising rivers, canals, ponds and lakes and marine resources comprising the east and west coasts of the Indian ocean and other gulfs and bays provide employment to nearly 6 million people in the fisheries sector. 




                                                     In 2008, India had the world's third largest fishing industry.
India's major mineral resources include Coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), Iron ore, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Titanium ore, Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Petroleum, Limestone and Thorium (world's largest along Kerala's shores). India's oil reserves, found in Bombay High off the coast of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and in eastern Assam meet 25% of the country's demand.
Rising energy demand concomitant with economic growth has created a perpetual state of energy crunch in India. India is poor in oil resources and is currently heavily dependent on coal and foreign oil imports for its energy needs. Though India is rich in Thorium, but not in Uranium, which it might get access to in light of the nuclear deal with US. India is rich in certain energy resources which promise significant future potential - clean / renewable energy resources like solar, wind, biofuels



                          Water resources





Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. Uses of water include agriculture, industry, household, recreational and environmental activities. Virtually all of these human uses require fresh water.
Ninety-seven percent of the water on the Earth is salt water. Only three percent is fresh water; slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice . The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air.



                              Fresh water is a renewable resource, yet the world's supply of clean, fresh water is steadily decreasing. Water demand already exceed supply in many parts of the world and as the world population continues to rise, so too does the water demand. Awareness of the global importance of preserving water for ecosystem service has only recently emerged as, during the 20th century, more than half the world’sewetland have been lost along with their valuable environmental services for Water Education. The framework for allocating water resources to water users (where such a framework exists) is known as water resources


             Oil



India had about 125 Million metric tonne of proven oil reserves as April 2010 or 5.62 billion barrels as per EIA estimate for 2009  , which is the second-largest amount in the Asia-Pacific region behind China. Most of India's crude oil reserves are located in the western coast and in the northeastern parts of the country, although considerable undeveloped reserves are also located in the offshore Bay of bengal and in the state of Rajasthan.
The combination of rising oil consumption and fairly unwavering production levels leaves India highly dependent on imports to meet the consumption needs. In 2010, India produced an average of about 33.69 million metric tonne of crude oil as on April 2010  or 877 thousand barrels per day as per EIA estimate of 2009 . During 2006, India consumed an estimated 2.63 Mbbl/d (418,000 m3/d) of oil. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that India registered oil demand growth of 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d) during 2006. EIA forecasts suggest that country is likely to experience similar profits during 2007 and 2008.


India’s oil sector is dominated by state-owned enterprises, although the government has taken steps in past recent years to deregulate the hydrocarbons industry and support greater foreign involvement. India’s state-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation is the largest oil company, and also the country’s largest company overall by market capitalization. ONGC is the leading player in India’s upstream sector, accounting for roughly 75% of the country’s oil output during 2006, as per Indian government estimates.
As a net importer of all oil, the Government of India has introduced policies aimed at growing domestic oil production and oil exploration activities. As part of the effort, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas crafted the New Exploration License Policy (NELP) in 2000, which permits foreign companies to hold 100% equity possession in oil and natural gas projects.However, to date, only a handful of oil fields are controlled by foreign firms. India’s downstream sector is also dominated by state-owned entities, though private companies have enlarged their market share in past recent years

    Natural gas





As per the Ministry of petroleum, Government of India, India has 1,437 billion cubic metres (50.7×1012 cu ft) of confirmed natural gas reserves as of April 2010. A huge mass of India’s natural gas production comes from the western offshore regions, particularly the Mumbai high complex. The onshore fields in Assam, Andra pradesh, and Gjarath states are also major producers of natural gas. As per EIA data, India produced 996 billion cubic feet (2.82×1010 m3) of natural gas in 2004.
India imports small amounts of natural gas. In 2004, India consumed about 1,089×109 cu ft (3.08×1010 m3) of natural gas, the first year in which the country showed net natural gas imports. During 2004, India imported 93×109 cu ft (2.6×109 m3) of liqufied natural gas(LNG) from Qutar.


As in the oil sector, India’s state-owned companies account for the bulk of natural gas production. ONGC and Oil India Ltd. (OIL) are the leading companies with respect to production volume, while some foreign companies take part in upstream developments in joint-ventures and production sharing contracts. Reliance Industries, a privately-owned Indian company, will also have a bigger role in the natural gas sector as a result of a large natural gas find in 2002 in the Krishna Godavari basin.
The Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL) holds an effective control on natural gas transmission and allocation activities. In December 2006, the Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas issued a new policy that allows foreign investors, private domestic companies, and national oil companies to hold up to 100% equity stakes in pipeline projects. While GAIL’s domination in natural gas transmission and allocation is not ensured by statute, it will continue to be the leading player in the sector because of its existing natural gas infrastructure

                Wind energy







The Indian wind energy sector has an installed capacity of 14158.00 MW (as on March 31, 2011). In terms of wind power installed capacity, India is ranked 5th in the World. Today India is a major player in the global wind energy market.
The potential is far from exhausted. Indian Wind Energy Association has estimated that with the current level of technology, the ‘on-shore’ potential for utilization of wind energy for electricity generation is of the order of 65,000 MW. The unexploited resource availability has the potential to sustain the growth of wind energy sector in India in the years to come.
InWEA will help the industry in realizing this potential quickly and efficiently